Warsaw (by bus from Prague to Vilnius)

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Travel has started to make airports less fun, so we’ve started planning transit connections via bus and train. The first big test of that was getting from Prague to Vilnius. We left ourselves an extra day, and decided we’d take a bus to Warsaw, have one day to relax, and then hop on another bus to finish the journey. Two 8+ hour bus trips would be enough to find out if trading airport annoyance for longer travel time was worth it. And another chance to spend time in Warsaw would definitely be welcome.

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Warsaw’s Barbican; Warsaw Mermaid in the Old Town Square

Poland was a favorite stop last year, but in our two weeks in Warsaw we didn’t get to do quite everything we’d hoped. We still needed to find the mermaid statue and check out the viewing terrace at the Place of Culture and Science.

The mermaid was easy to locate. We’d passed nearly right by it last year, though it had been blocked from sight by dining tourists in the Old Town’s central square. The Palace was a couple blocks from our Airbnb, so this time we had no excuse to avoid it.

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Modern skyscrapers and the Palace of Culture and Science

The Palace towers ominously amid all the newer glass-and-steel buildings of Warsaw. A ‘gift’ from the Soviet Union, it still seems out of place, surrounded by modern architecture. It is massive enough to house multiple theatres, a college, and museums in addition to the viewing deck. It was quite hot on the afternoon we went, but the 30th floor had a constant breeze. Since our apartment lacked air conditioning, we were content to relax at altitude for a while.

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On the road: stork’s nest, roadside chapel and cross, lots of fields

Eighteen hours on buses, even spread out over two days worth of trips, is a lot of sitting. From Prague to Warsaw was the prettier trip – we went through the hills on a two-lane highway and then descended on to flat plains full of farms and fields. Dozens of white storks were in freshly mown hay fields. Occasionally we’d catch sight of one of their massive nests on top a power pole or platform built specifically for them. The edges of small towns (and even many farmsteads) had ribbon-bedecked crosses marking boundaries. Small chapels served as a spot for prayers for a safe journey. Between Warsaw and Vilnius the journey was more monotonous. Fields and trees made up the scenery.

Since we had the time, the bus was the right choice. Far cheaper than flying, we didn’t have to worry about luggage weight limits and could take kitchen supplies with us. It was easier to get to and from our apartments as well. Rather than planning out an early-morning airport arrival, we could just head to the bus stop in the center of town via tram or a cheap Uber ride. No need to waste two hours at an airport or go through long lines at security. Plus, all that extra transit time let me catch up on reading and podcasts! We’ve planned future stays in such a way that plane travel should become less frequent, taken over by more relaxed bus rides.

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Sights in Europe

This rambling features a bunch of ‘favorite’ European sights that is entirely based on today’s mood (and then basically pulling a name out of a hat if we couldn’t decide) and our current state of melting in ~85+ degree heat and 90% humidity. Anything that reminds us of a cold day probably got moved up subconsciously. And of course, our experiences were colored because some places were under renovation while others were too crowded to make our experience feel worth the admission cost.

Best Art Museum: National Art Museum of Catalunya (MNAC) in Barcelona. This was the only museum we visited multiple times because Saturday afternoons are free. 🙂 The palatial building has art-filled wings and frescoed domes. It dominates a hillside above Venetian-styled towers, waterfalls and fountains. MNAC’s collection is incredible – 13th century altarpieces (with mayhem-causing demons or saints boiling away in pots), Art Deco stained glass and advertising posters, sketches of the Spanish Civil War’s destruction, works by El Greco, Rubens, Goya…

Favorite Mode of Transit: Seaplane from Split to Dubrovnik. Head to Split’s picturesque harbor, sip on drinks waterside, board to find there are only 3 passengers, enjoy gorgeous mountain and island views all the way down the coast. A 45-minute jaunt and the chance the shoreline slip by is much preferable to a 4+ hour bus ride featuring two bonus border crossings.

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MNAC, Croatian peninsula, view from Dubrovnik’s walls.

Best City for Drinking Outside: Budapest. This city takes summer drinking to a new level. Mix cheap beer, lots of public space, great transit and voila! Some parks have stands selling alcohol, but it is more common to bring your own. Time of day doesn’t particularly matter, though nights are better, especially if you come across live music or a soccer match screening. Fisherman’s Bastion and the pedestrian-only Liberty Bridge provide some great views and enough drinking space for everyone.

Most Impressive City Walls: Dubrovnik. Game of Thrones is filmed there for a reason. Several cities we visited had walls in the past, but Dubrovnik’s are complete and you can walk all the way around them, exploring towers and the intimidating Lovrijeniac Fortress across a small bay. The blue Adriatic and the tightly packed Old Town fill the views.

Happiest Palace: Pena Palace in Sintra, Portugal. Move over, Neuschwanstein. Not only is the Pena Palace more brightly colored, it was actually lived in. The interior is just as cheerful as the outside with fountains and tiles. The grounds are pretty as well, with rambling trails, live black swans, and carefully planned views.

Favorite Old Town: Tallinn. Small, surrounded by towers, full of church spires, pastel colored buildings, and a pretty hill to climb. Yes, restaurants and souvenir poods dominate. We ignored those and focused on the cuteness, small parks, and quieter streets. Note: we avoided the high season, weekends, and cruise tour groups.

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Pena Palace, library at Mafra, Trinity College Library.

Library Nearest My Vision of Heaven: Trinity College Library, Dublin. One of about three places that looked like their Instagram images, no photoshopping required. Thousands of books, richly colored wood, gorgeous bindings. Large crowds detracted a bit. It isn’t a very wide room since the sides are cordoned off, but at least we could stay as long as we wanted to try to soak it in. The library at Portugal’s Palace of Mafra gets an honorable mention because it is equally beautiful, with far fewer visitors. The downside there is not being able to walk as far into it to get a sense of the scale. But the huge cross-shaped hall is gorgeous marblework worthy of a such an impressive royal residence.

Most Interesting Non-Art Museum: Village Museum, Bucharest. Outside in a city park, the Village Museum let us tour the Romanian countryside without leaving Bucharest. Dozens of old buildings – homes, churches, barns, windmills have been preserved, and turned into a living history museum. Lots of love has gone into furnishing the homes and keeping the carved gates and painted details. It was fun even in a storm (we sheltered in a wine press). The wide variety of structures showcased the different traditional styles from around Romania.

Sports Team with the Most Rabid Fans: Hadjuk Soccer Club from Split. Our hosts warned us that if we were ever harassed in a bar or on the street to just say “Volimo Hajduk” (“We love Hajduk!” – we never had to, everyone was really kind). Graffiti with the name Hajduk and their red-and-white checker colors was EVERYWHERE – sidewalks, buses, underpasses, huge murals on buildings. They have their own branded chocolate, liquor, snacks. Every kid must own at least one jersey. Even in Dubrovnik, Hajduk reigned.

Coincidental Event We Didn’t Plan to See But Enjoyed the Most: Red Bull Air Race, Budapest. Ok, so the weather was terrible, practices were cancelled, events cut short, and we didn’t get to see them fly under the bridge (a thing they convince the planes to do!). And it was still an incredible display of reflexes and flying planes stupidly close to water and between buildings in the center of a city with thousands of people cheering on either side of the river.

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Village Museum, Red Bull Air Race, tombs at Cemiterio dos Prazeres, La Sagrada Familia.

Creepiest Cemetery: Cemiterio dos Prazeres, LisbonGhosts clearly come out at night. Above ground tomb, with doors of broken glass, let the lace curtains covering the coffins flutter in the wind. Few people, but cats in surprising places watching you.

Church Putting All Others to Shame: La Sagrada Familia, Barcelona. La Sagrada Familia is otherwordly. It stands alone, strikingly different from any other church we saw.  Inside, the white stone canvas swirls with rainbows of colored light streaming through the stained glass. Statuary covers the exterior, the side portraying the Crucifixion is in violent relief, the opposite showing Creation is decadent with natural scenery. It is expensive, the priciest building we entered, but worth it – even with the thousand other people. While waiting to enter you can even watch the ongoing construction, and dream about what it will look like when finished.

Favorite Museum Artwork: Discovering the Body of King Louis II by Bertalan SzekelyIt’s a weird choice, but in person it is impressive and some parts are so realistic that it took me a while to convince myself the canvas was flat.

Most Heartwrenching Memorial: Auschwitz I and Auschwitz-Birkenau in Poland. The preserved concentration, forced labor, and death camp complex is a sobering memorial to human suffering and powerful warning about the evils humans will commit. Crowds detract a bit initially, but it was easy to begin to ignore them and turn inward to try to understand the horrors that happened there. Auschwitz I was on a too-human scale, its brick buildings reminded me of college dorms. But of course, inside are the exhibits of human hair, items confiscated from the victims. It’s awful. My stomach churned for hours remembering that people tortured, murdered, starved so many. Auschwitz-Birkenau’s vastness magnifies the horrors of Auschwitz I. Everyone should visit to confront the world’s failure to stop the Holocaust and the ongoing need to keep it from recurring.

Historical Artifact We Should Have Learned about In School but Didn’t: Romania’s Steel Crown. King Carol I asked for a crown of steel made from cannons captured by soldiers fighting for Romania’s independence. He wanted to remember their sacrifice.

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Fortress at Omis, Romania’s royal crown, book fountain, gas canisters at Auschwitz.

Cheapest Deal: Castles during Croatia’s off season.  They often charge at least a small admission fee. But in April, some days no one will be at the ticket booth and the castles will still be open (can’t blame them for wanting to hike up if no tourists seem to be in town). 🙂 Happened at Omis and on Hvar.

Cutest Public Artwork: Book Fountain in Budapest. Water makes it look like the book’s pages are turning. It’s cute. The end.

Prettiest Hiking: Plitvice Lakes, CroatiaWe visited during the off-season and avoided the worst crowds, and it was peaceful and pretty. Boardwalks weave around the waterfalls and under the trees; it’s a perfect way to spend at least an afternoon.

Where to See Books & Manuscripts Up Close: Chester Beatty Library, DublinThe large libraries are beautiful in their own right, but only display a handful of books – they are all still on shelves. This museum focuses on individual books and has hundreds on display, all the way back to papyrus from ancient Egypt and fragments from the earliest copies of several books of the Bible.

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Plitvice Lakes, Chester Beatty Library, Suomenlinna Island.

Favorite Fortress for Exploring: Suomenlinna, HelsinkiA small series of islands in the Gulf of Finland have the preserved remains of a massive fort that guarded Helsinki’s harbor. The tunnels running through many ramparts and rocky waterfronts are open for exploring.

Stress-inducing Thing that was Fun Afterward: Driving in Romania. Driving laws in Romania appear to be suggestions. Roads are shared with speeding semis, horse-drawn carts, bicycles, cars pulling over for no reason. Everyone honks for everything. But the countryside is pretty, especially in the Transylvanian mountains.

City Walking that Doesn’t Suck: Barcelona’s Wide Boulevards. Outside the Gothic Quarter’s  tangled mess, sidewalks are huge, open, flat. The city is easy to navigate because just about every street is at a right angle.

Here are some other things grouped by city that I didn’t want to come up with individual paragraphs for:

Lisbon has a castle downtown! The ruined Carmo Monastery! The less ruined Jeronimos Monastery. Next door to the Pena Palace is the clamberable ruins of the Moorish Castle.

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Carving at Jeronimos Monastery, Carmo Monastery, Solin’s ruined amphitheater.

Barcelona’s Montjuic Castle has dark and checkered history, but beautiful views. Nearby, the Olympic Grounds are a great picnic/frisbee spot.

The damp of Diocletian’s palace basement in Split still shows how good Romans were at construction. Ruins at Solin add to that argument. Klis Fortress is also pretty but they clearly know people are coming due to GoT filming – the price keeps going up.

The shore path on the Babin Kuk side of Dubrovnik was more relaxing than ones nearer the Old Town. Ferrying out to Lokrum Island also avoided about 95% of the crowd and was a nice place to spend an afternoon being stalked by peacocks.

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Lokrum Island, Palace of the Parliament, Peles Castle.

Bucharest has a beautiful Orthodox church every few blocks. Towering over everything, the Palace of the Parliament is a primer in government waste. Two hours away in the mountains, Peles Castle proves that a country doesn’t have to have a royal family for very long before all the trappings show up.

In Dublin, the National Archaeology Museum and St. Patrick’s Cathedral  were my other favorites. And the whole city recalls lots of great literature 🙂 . Across the country, really just a few hours drive, are the Cliffs of Moher. Brave the wind and don’t get too close to the edge.

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Cliffs of Moher, inside St. Patrick’s, Dohany Street Synagogue.

Budapest is impressive all around. The quirky Pinball Museum is great for 5 hours until your wrists give out but the massive Szechenyi Thermal Baths can relieve all those arm cramps. A more sombre visit, the Dohany Street Synagogue is a reminder of how the Holocaust changed Hungary.

In addition to the Uprising Museum, the entire city of Warsaw is a WWII memorial. Walking anywhere you come upon plaques and statues commemorating events or people, letting you map out the destruction in your own neighborhood. In the suburbs, the Wilanow Palace serves as a reminder of the pre-WWII era.

Krakow crams a lot into a small space, which explains why it’s packed with tourists. The Franciscan Basilica is incredible. The park encircling the Old Town, the riverfront walk, or Kazimierz (the traditionally Jewish area) gets away from some of the horde. Further out, the now-parklike Plaszow Concentration Camp is Auschwitz’s lesser-known cousin that makes a thoughtful accompaniment to Oskar Schindler’s Factory.

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Wilanow, Krakow’s Franciscan Church, Lennusadam, Kadriorg Palace.

Tallinn’s St. Olaf church tower is a great way to view the Old Town and reveal a fear of heights. Tucked away in Kadriorg park is the impressive KUMU National Art Museum and the cute Kadriorg Palace (also housing art). The Lennusadam Seaplane Harbor has full sized boats and a submarine to explore

Again, these are the places that stuck out the most. Just about everything we saw was worth our time in some way or another. For every place we saw, there are more we heard about but didn’t get to. I suppose yet another reason to head back at some future point….

The Food Review of Europe

We’ve moved back to the Americas for the foreseeable future, leaving fall and winter behind. Sorry Europe, it’s time for some beaches in Mexico and Latin American culture. Coming snow and chill aside, I’m going to miss all the countries we visited in Europe. I thought it might be fun to do a recap of the best things we saw and ate and some of the oddities we noticed. New blogs will be light this month as we are staying in a beach town and well… basically going to the beach every day. This post is all about the food and drink in eight countries we visited in Europe, starting with the best food from each place.

  • In Lisbon, Portugal, egg tarts reign. Just all of them all the time; get them from Pasteis de Belem or literally any other bakery. How their eggs are so tasty is a mystery. Even the eggs we got at the store had richer yolks and seemed tastier than eggly possible.
  • Best meal in Barcelona is tapas, hands down. Away from the tourist streets they are much cheaper and about 483% better. Every possible combination of cheese, veggies, and meat is available. For a Euro, you can have a couple bites that taste like the equivalent of $40 meal. And usually there is a wide variety so it is perfect if someone wants hamburgers and another person wants fruit & cheese plates.
  • Ajvar is Croatia’s contribution to culinary heaven. A blend of peppers and eggplant, it fits between pasta sauce and salsa. Doesn’t sound too special, but it was my go-to topping for toast, eggs, chips, pasta, crackers, meat, or sometimes just by the spoonful by itself. Especially worth nothing when served on cevapi, a skinless sausage sandwich that may cause you to nearly ruin your shirt in your hurry to get it all in your face because YUM! I searched for ajvar in every European country we went to post-Croatia. (Romania has a similar food called zakusca, but it’s more soupy and forgettable.)
  • In Bucharest, Romania, the Caru’ cu Bere restaurant served up cheap lunch eats. We had superb sour kraut salad, polenta (with a rich topping of cheese, cream, and egg – it was the appetizer but basically became my main course), and tomato and cucumber salad.
  • Fish was the best bet in Ireland. There isn’t really any specific way to have it prepared as long as it’s fresh. Locals emphasized that Irish cuisine doesn’t have a ‘must-try’ dish. In fact, Dublin may have had the highest percentage of restaurants and shops focusing on cuisine from other cultures.
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    Horse and cous cous (Kevin whipped it up after a trip to the main market), egg tarts, winning chips.
  • Goulash soup was probably the highlight of Hungary. Full of meats, veggies, and paprika, it is warm and rich. It’s probably more suited to winter than summer, so we need to go back in a season when I can eat more of it. It’s definitely not the hamburgery noodles I grew up calling goulash. Also, in a possible tie, Hungary has deep fried potato donuts. These are exactly what they sound like: a mix of potato and donut dough, fried for a crispy outside and soft, warm inside. Though they are called donuts, they aren’t dessert, but another example of Hungary’s love of high-calorie goodness.
  • Poland claims victory on the pierogi front, naturally. I didn’t know there could be so many kinds. Duck, mushroom, salmon, and berries make excellent fillings though ruskie (cheese and potato) is the most traditional and is clearly the King of Pierogies. Done right, they are puffy, joyous food pillows that I would gleefully eat for every meal.
  • Estonia wins dessert. Never thought I would say that Estonia has the best (non-egg tart) pastries, but they pulled it off. We were just a block away from a bakery that served up supremely fluffy pastries with the richest, smoothest creamy cheese fillings and icings. And Kalev, the main brand of chocolate, makes some of the best anywhere in Europe. Sorry, Germany, Kinder doesn’t cut it anymore.
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Croatian peanut crisps, pierogies!!, Hungarian langosh, Estonian chips.

Other food takeaways that surprised us:

  • Frozen veggies are tastier in Europe. There are Italian, Chinese, and Mexican mixes that taste as fresh as a salad. The flavors are intense – like the veggies just came out of the garden. And at $1-2 dollars a bag that would feed both of us for two or three meals, America can learn something.
  • Horse meat is really tasty. Seriously.
  • So is moose. It fits somewhere between prosciutto and beef jerky on the meat-flavor spectrum.
  • Portugal does the egg thing, but Spain must be the beneficiary of the actual chicken. Chicken in Spain tasted like a unique meat, not just a bland food needing lots of seasoning.
  • Duck is really cheap at Lidl in Hungary. And in Estonia. We shamelessly ate a lot of it.
  • We ate risottos in several countries and they are now probably a necessary part of my existence. The ones in Portugal were richer, more flavorful, and more gravy-like. At the Time Out Market near Lisbon’s waterfront, I had the best risotto of the whole trip with game hen and mushrooms. Ones in Hungary featured paprika, naturally.
  • Sushi is common in Estonia and is happy to blend local flavors and products. We even saw a full-color book of Estonian-Japanese fusion foods.
  • Peanut crisps (think Cheetos puffs with less corn and more legume) seemed to be the most popular snack in Croatia. They are addicting. Hrusk Crisps were my personal favorite. I now prefer them to cheese puffs, though I will admit that I got addicted to Latvian-produced nacho cheese balls in Estonia.
  • Thank Hungary for fair and festival food. They are masters of fried dough and carryable meat.

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    Baklava (it also comes in chocolate), various ajvars, milk sans refrigeration in Croatia.
  • Chip flavors vary by country – salsa, paprika, prosciutto, mushroom, hamburger, kebab, dill, steak. There are more traditional flavors as well, the cheeses, onions, sour creams. Missing were Doritos Cool Ranch and Fritos.
  • We had goose legs for the first time in Hungary. Better than turkey.
  • All of Europe is terrible at spicy foods. The only partial exception is Hungary, which corners the paprika market, but still only reaches a small percentage of what we got used to in Southeast Asia.
  • Dill doesn’t seem to exist in most places. It was only readily available in Estonia, presumably because they have salmon in large quantities. And salmon necessitates dill.
  • Peanut butter is an exotic rarity. While it can be found in some supermarkets, it is 2-5 times more expensive than in the U.S. and is often grittier and lacking spreadability. And often hiding out in the refrigerated section.
  • Europe loves cheese. The Iberian peninsula favors soft cheeses, while Romania northward seemed much more in love with hard, aged cheeses. Even so, finding appropriate cheese for nachos in Croatia was nearly impossible. Same goes for pre-shredded.
  • Most know Spain is famous for prosciutto, but Hungary and Poland should also be on the preserved-meat fan’s radar. Especially Poland. Though the Central Market in Budapest had a stall serving what might have been the best prosciutto of the trip.
  • Instant ramen is ubiquitous (college kids everywhere survive on that stuff), but Poland took it a step further and had beetroot borscht alongside the chicken and shrimp flavors. Sure enough, same cheap noodles, but this time with a spice packet that turned the soup bright reddish-purple. And yes, it was good.

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    Veggies with duck & lingonberry sauce – made by Kevin :), moose jerky, salmon, beet & herring salad, Eesti pastry.

Of course, drinks go with food:

  • Literally ALL THE WINE IN PORTUGAL IS GOOD. We drank 3 -or 4-Euro bottles almost exclusively and had no regrets. The best ports were pricier. We shared a single small glass of 30 year-old port that cost about $7US and was smooth and flavorful. If only we had enough for whole bottles of that stuff…
  • Alcohol in Spain was disappointing; perhaps it was overshadowed by Portugal’s. The wine was more expensive and not to our liking, and the beers were forgettable.
  • Croatian wine, especially a grape variety called plavac mali, was the best thing to drink. The best bottle (we splurged for our birthdays) was produced by Zlatan Otok. We’ve never seen Croatian wine anywhere else, even other European nations, much less in the U.S. We were told their industry was growing, so hopefully we’ll be able to find it in the future.
    • An aside on Macedonian wine: They made their way frequently into Croatian stores, and it turns out they also deserve to be better known. Some are even aged in amphorae, modern versions of the containers pulled up from shipwrecks. This makes for more earthy wines, and is a fun way to feel a little more connected to the region’s history.
  • Sweet red wines are Romania’s forte. Even wines listed as dry are not. Kevin wasn’t thrilled by this, but I took it as a sign to make wine my dessert.

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    Full spectrum of Spanish wine (protip: the boxed wine is pretty terrible), Croatian plavac mali, Portuguese deliciousness.
  • Hungary’s best drinking was sweet white wines from the Tokaji region. Like Romania, lots of residual sugar.
  • It turns out Poland does make a little bit of wine, but they make much more beer and (SO MUCH!) vodka. Too many (really cheap) drinkable beers to name, but there is one vodka that stands out. Bisongrass vodka isn’t available in the US (it’s just a teeny bit toxic), but it is the best vodka either of us has had.
  • Redcurrant wine in Estonia. Berries take the place of grapes here; thank goodness they can be fermented and aged the same way. More like drinking syrup than alcohol, it is another example of their domination of desserts. Though kvass (beer made from fermented bread that tastes like toast), should get an honorary mention.

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    Tallin’s hard liquor, fruit wine, kvass, and more fruit wines. Poland’s lychee beer, and Hungarian corks.

Overall, the best countries for (grape) wine were 1. Portugal – a perfect blend of inexpesive and flavorful wines 2. Croatia – for their own unique grapes and the other Balkan countries that were represented, a little pricier but still lots of deals 3. Hungary has more sweeter wines and it matches well with their cuisine.

For beer, the rankings are mostly based on Kevin’s opinion. He appreciates beer more than I do, but the more we travel, the more I find ones I like. 1. Poland wins beer. It was cheap, there was a lot of it, and there was a wide variety. And all of it was good. Nothing randomly pulled off a shelf disappointed. They also are proud of a growing craft beer industry that has produced some interesting combinations. 2. Hungary snags second place because beer there is very cheap and usually of high quality. We did find a few duds, but for pennies a bottle, it is easy to experiment. 3. Estonia has a much bigger craft scene, so there is a lot of variety for a small country. Their overall cost of living means beer is pricier than any other European country we went to on this trip. But it is tasty and there is always something new to try.

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Polish beer cap collection, craft beers, Romanian wines.

Kevin gets to exclusively pick the favorites for harder liquor awarding first to: 1. Ireland for its smooth whisky. 2. Poland because they have all the vodka. Aisles and aisles of vodka. And all the locals love it. We saw an 80 year-old couple checking out at the store with chicken, three apples, a can of coffee, and about 8 bottles of vodka. Not sure if that is how they stand each other or their children or just because they are 80 and who gives? 3. Estonia has Vana Tallinn, which makes run-based liquors and some that have winter spices in the mix – cozy for the growing chill.

Europe takes alcohol seriously. Quality is important, but so is quantity… In Croatia and a few other places, wine often comes in 1 liter bottles (rather than the U.S.-standard .75 liter). And beer. Beer cans in Europe make the standard U.S. can look like a child’s toy. Mass produced beers also come in 1- and 2-liter bottles, because beer! In Estonia, Finns hop the ferry over to buy cheaper alcohol. Estonia obliges by providing 10-packs of vodka (aka the “Finn-pack”) at all stores near the ferry dock, as well as handcarts to make carrying it back easy.

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Yummy Hungarian Dreher Bak, Irish birds love beer, Irish whisky distillery, cork collection from Dubrovnik.

One of the interesting challenges was to try to find packaging with the most languages. The winner seemed to be a pizza box we got at Carrefour in Poland with full instructions and ingredient lists in 7 languages. (Two to four seemed to be about the average.) There was also a ketchup packet that had 11, but in almost every language the translation for ‘tomato ketchup’ is ‘tomato ketchup.’

In some cities, there are still wonderfully diverse markets showcasing local produce and meats. Some are considerably cheaper than stores for in-season produce, but others are tourist-focused and overcharge accordingly. Usually they are worth going to in either case.

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European markets. 🙂

I suppose what I’m trying to say is that food has become a main part of our trip. We mostly ate at home, Kevin taking the opportunity to try new recipes (paella and ratatouille and fish), while using local ingredients. Unlike Thailand and Malaysia, eating out often in Europe would have drained our budget too fast, though I will say that doner kebab is cheap and yummy and very common. It was a little tough moving each month because we never knew what kitchen utensils we would end up with or how well our stove would work. Some of our favorite foods were ones we’ve had before but that had new twists or tasted completely different because of the quality of the ingredients. While we are happy to have moved on to a place where spicy food is again available and taco trucks are on many corners (namely ones by grocery store parking lots), Europe has so much more deliciousness to offer that we will have to head back… Even eight months was only enough time to get to a small portion of it all…

Concentration Camps

Poland and its people suffered for years under Nazi rule, and both cities we visited have many memorials to the atrocities and acts of resistance. The Nazi party and the German government had been operating camps in Germany since the early 1930’s and shortly after their invasion of Poland, they began setting up camps there as well. We knew in advance of our stay in Krakow that we would be sure to visit Auschwitz. What we didn’t know until after we arrived was that just a couple of kilometers from our apartment was the site of another camp, Plaszow.

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Fields where the camp used to stand and some of the few ruins.

Plaszow was set up by the Nazis in 1942 as a forced labor camp for Krakow’s Jews, who had already been confined to a Ghetto. (Oskar Schindler’s factory was part of this camp’s labor system, but his attempts keep his Jewish workers fed and safe were the exception.) Conditions were awful – little food or medication and brutal beatings by the guards. As time passed, large scale executions began taking place at the camp and thousands were shot in addition to those that were worked to death or perished from disease. As the Soviet army approached Krakow, the Nazis forced the prisoners to dismantle the camp and burn victim’s bodies in order to hide their crimes.

Today, only a few ruins remain amid an otherwise empty field. We walked through on gray day and encountered just a couple of others. A few markers stand at the edges of the site, but it is mostly a quiet place for reflection. It was a very different kind of memorial to the victims that what we encountered at Auschwitz later in the week.

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Remains of fences at Plaszow and the nearby quarry.

Where Plaszow was largely destroyed, Auschwitz was left mostly intact as the Nazis fled the Soviets advancing on the Eastern Front. This time, survivors were left alive along with items confiscated from victims, and plenty of evidence of the Nazi’s crimes. The camp is actually divided into multiple parts. There were three main camps -Auschwitz I, Auschwitz II-Birkenau, and Auschwitz-Monowitz – in addition to dozens of sub-camps.

Our tour began at Auschwitz I, which was created out of army barracks. It was smaller than I expected. Hundreds of prisoners would have been housed in each building in appalling conditions. The buildings are red brick, which I found disconcerting. It looked almost like a college campus except for the barbed wire fences ringing the area, the torture barrack with its bricked-over windows and yard used for executions, and the looming gallows.

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The Wall of Death, canisters that transported Zyklon-B, the main gate of Auschwitz-I.

Most buildings now hold exhibits on the suffering of groups the Nazis found “undesirable,” especially the Jews, who were brought to the camp from all over Europe. Heartbreaking rooms show items taken from the prisoners – suitcases carefully labeled so they wouldn’t get lost on the journey, thousands of pieces of cookware that would have been needed for starting a new life at the camp, piles of shoes. There were a pair of red patent leather wedges that reminded me of ones I owned in high school. I kept wondering if the girl who carried them with her anticipated a return to normal life; maybe they matched a dress she brought, maybe they made her feel taller. Most disturbing was a room full of human hair cut from those coming into the camp and from the bodies of those murdered in the gas chambers immediately upon their arrival. Some are still in ponytails and braids.

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Dividing fences in Auschwitz-I and one of the roads through Auschwitz II-Birkenau.

Auschwitz I felt small, compact. It made the experience of walking up to Auschwitz II-Birkenau so much worse. The parking lot for this portion of the camp sits partially behind a grove of trees. The infamous gatehouse with train tracks running under the archway is visible, along with several watch towers and barracks. But with each step toward the main gate, we moved past the trees and more fences, guard towers, and barracks kept appearing. It is massive. Again, hundreds of people were housed in each building; but this time there were countless buildings. The scale staggered me. This is the point at which the numbers become more abstract and harder to grasp. Tens of thousands of people would have been imprisoned here – this one camp would have been many times the size of the town I grew up in, and there were camps all across Nazi-occupied Europe. And those were the individuals the Nazis deemed fit for work. So many came into the camp and went straight to their death – sometimes more than 80% of the people arriving were murdered within hours of stepping off the train.

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View from the Auschwitz II-Birkenau gatehouse, Crematoria ruins

By the end of the war, more than a million perished just in the Auschwitz camps – gassed, starved, worked to death, suffering from disease and torture. The Crematoria buildings are ruins now – one was blown up in a revolt by the Sonderkommando, the others were destroyed and stripped of their killing systems as the Nazis retreated.

It is sickening to see how attentive to detail the Nazis running the camps were. The first Crematoria were built at Auschwitz I but lacked shower heads. Our guide described the panic this caused in prisoners as they realized it was a killing chamber – the noise they made disturbed the Nazi officers and guards and let other prisoners know what was happening. The next ones were built with the appearance of real showers, with hooks for clothes and the victims given soap on the way inside.

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Some of Auschwitz II-Birkenau’s expanse, the train tracks leading into the camp from the Gatehouse

The surviving records are also disgustingly exact. Paperwork lays out how much gold was confiscated and shipped back to the Reich, how much human hair was sent to factories, how much companies were paying for prisoner labor. Not only did the Nazis systematically kill, they systematically exploited the belongings, the bodies, and any life left in their victims. In one cruel twist, some victims early in the war were even made to pay for their own rail tickets to the camp.

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A rail car used to transport people to Auschwitz

My brain is still trying to wrap itself around the horror of what I saw at Auschwitz. I can’t imagine the cruelty that would have been daily reality for so many, from the side of the victim or the oppressor. How anyone could meet out such abuses on others is saddening and stomach-churning. How anyone could survive such savagery is also beyond my comprehension. Humanity seems to have limitless capacities for both evil and for hope and defiance in the face of evil. Auschwitz should serve as a reminder and a warning that we need to stand up to oppression in all forms.

Wilanow

Week two in Warsaw was more relaxed, in part because it was raining much of the time. Fortunately we eked out one bright day to spend at the Wilanow Palace. The last stop of the bus line running by our apartment was literally at the palace gates, so it was easy to get there even though it was on the other side of town. It turned out that the Palace uses timed tickets for crowd control (something a couple of other Warsaw museums could take a cue from). We ended up with two hours before our entry slot. Luckily the Poster Museum and the park grounds around the Palace were free for the day.

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Wilanow Palace and its grounds

The Poster Museum had some of the most up-to-date displays I’ve ever seen in a museum – items from supporters of Charlie Hebdo and from Black Lives Matter protests. The parklands are massive – befitting a royal residence – and have both formal flower gardens and tangles of trees and reedy ponds. It is a pretty popular place to have wedding photos taken – it was a Monday and there were multiple bride & groom sets posing. Honestly, the day was so nice that wandering around the grounds was as interesting as the palace itself.

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Inside the palace… I quite like the faux baby leg coming through the ‘skylight’

Wilanow is one of the few important buildings in Warsaw to escape total destruction by the Nazis. A plaque just a few hundred feet from the gates mark a spot where the Home Army prevented the demolition crew from reaching their target. The damage it did receive during WWII has been repaired – most rooms are decked out as they would have been in the 1700s. A few are much plainer (presumably sections hit by bombs or shrapnel), and are now used for gallery exhibitions. Currently it was set up with tea and chocolate serving sets. The best part was old quotes about how healthy chocolate is from essays published hundreds of years ago when it was still an exciting and newly available product.

The restored rooms are incredibly decadent – velvet wallpaper, muraled ceilings, gold paint, lots of art. I particularly like the portrait of the woman rolling her eyes. I believe she is supposed to be either looking heavenward or to a lover in another portrait that would have been placed above her. But she really seems as thought the whole ordeal of sitting for the artist is just too much for her afternoon. Upstairs, a small domed ceiling had a sky painted in the oculus with a couple of cherubs perched on the edge. But someone had the brilliant idea to fit a sculpted cherub leg onto the mural to make it look more 3 dimensional. I want to give the person who thought of this a hug… the random baby leg dangling from the roof made my afternoon.

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Public arts

Elsewhere around the city, we stumbled on more public art. I don’t know what the yellow stones are for (a wooden platform just out of the shot was still being constructed), but it reminded me of the rocks I used to decorate my goldfish’s bowl. The rocket cow gets a gold medal for most interesting sculpture? statue? assemblage? It was hiding in a rather subdued-looking business park that had other surprises, including some incredibly fresh and tasty sushi whipped up by Polish chefs.

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Some favorite – kebab chips, dill chips, beet-soup- flavored instant noodles and some very USA-looking snacks, and a light Polish Riesling

Sushi aside, snacks in Poland raise the bar for the rest of the world. The following chips flavors exist: dill, kebab & onion (reminiscent of a pita kebab), grilled kebab, Oriental salsa, every kind of paprika, multiple kinds of cheese. Not to mention spiral ketchup Cheetos. And the chocolate… I will be craving both E. Wedel and Goplana (which I discovered this afternoon) candy bars for a long time to come. A non-zero amount of my time in Krakow will be spent tracking down more sweets. Of course, that will only be the time that I am not stuffing my face with pierogis. The frozen cheese & potato pierogis we sometimes bought in Seattle are a pale shadow of the real thing, but more on that in a later post.

Warsaw Historical Sights

Our first week in Warsaw, Poland seemed to be all about the city’s history. I’ve heard Warsaw described multiple times as a medieval city that happens to be less than 50 years old. I think that’s pretty accurate. It certainly felt like the most modern city we’ve been to so far on the trip, even though it looked as the Old Town Market Square could have been built 300 years ago (I mean, it was, but then…).

In a lot of ways, the city has been a continuing construction project for the last 70 years. Even now, tower cranes are everywhere. Expats who have lived here just easily point out the numerous skyscrapers they’ve seen built.

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Towers on the Barbakan, window in St. John’s Archcathedral.

Despite all the growth, the past is never far away. There are memorials – statues, monuments, plaques – on essentially every street. The best known is probably the statue of the Little Insurgent, commemorating children who aided – and sometimes fought and were killed alongside – the participants in the Warsaw Uprising. Most unsettling to me was the sheer number of simple plaques on walls or benches dedicated to massacres or battles that took place there less than a lifetime ago. The 72nd anniversary of the beginning of the Uprising was August 1, and so many were decorated with white and red flowers and flags.

To contemplate each one and the suffering a sentence or two encapsulates is crushing. It make me wonder about the difficult choices ordinary Varsovians made each day. A more optimistic route is to remember the intense patriotism and bravery and to see today’s rebuilt Warsaw as a memorial in itself.

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Little Insurgent Monument, Doors of the Cathedral of the Polish Army, gardens near the Palace.

One subtle reminder caught me particularly off guard. Walking through Krasinskich Park I happened to look down at a patterned patch on the sidewalk: inlay showing the edge of the Jewish Ghetto. The same boundary line runs not too far from our apartment, well over a mile from the other wall. It is hard to fathom the city within a city forcibly separated from the outside world but home to hundreds of thousands. And of course, as the Ghetto was emptied, a huge portion of the citizens were trained directly to death camps (from a station that stood just about three blocks from our apartment). Thousands more were murdered by starvation, disease, and violence.

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Also not far from our apartment is the peaceful Powazkowski Cemetery. Though much survives from before the War (though sans records), some of its stones are still carry bullet scars. With the Polish people oppressed by foreign systems, this became a place for artists to focus their talents and it is full of beautiful statues. Families here take remembrance very seriously and there were often fresh flowers and candles, even on older graves.

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In the Powazkowski Cemetery and a synagogue ceiling at the Polish Jewish History Museum.

To get a better idea of the events behind sites around Warsaw, we went to the Museum of the History of Polish Jews (the winner of a well-deserved Museum of the Year award) and the Uprising Museum. Both are incredible.

The Jewish History Museum has interactive exhibits and covers a thousand years. Naturally there is a focus on the Holocaust, but there is a definite effort to show cultural revivals happening today as well as the deep history of Jewish culture in Polish society. My favorite part was the beautiful replica of the Gwoździec Synagogue’s ceiling.

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Warsaw Uprising Museum

Warsaw’s Uprising Museum is similarly visitor-involving. There are recreations of sewers that insurgents carried messages and weapons through, a replica air-drop bomber, and immersive sound and video experiences. It drove home hardships of the Uprising and the betrayal experienced when the Soviet Army did not come to their aid. It was fascinating to learn that, in spite of the fighting, daily life went on. Newspapers were published and cafes were open in some areas. Insurgents saw themselves as the restoration of a Polish government, even holding a stamp-designing contest, printing postage stamps, and delivering mail.

Finally, a less-heavy note: some art from around the city. Winged ponies on a palace lawn are almost as happy as it comes.

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City arts. Ok, so the last one is just a fun staircase.